Cet avis intègre 22 préconisations, déclinées autour de 5 axes :
• donner toute sa place à la nature dans les politiques publiques
• connaître et faire connaître les bienfaits de la nature en ville
• répondre aux besoins des habitants et accueillir la nature en ville
• faire de la nature un élément structurant de l’aménagement urbain
• contribuer à la solidarité de la ville avec son territoire
Selon Annabelle Jaeger, rapporteure pour la section Environnement du CESE, l’avis vise « à généraliser à l’ensemble des villes françaises de métropole et d’outre-mer une dynamique qui donne une meilleure place à la nature dans la ville et qui insère mieux la ville dans la nature »
Avec une place importante donnée aux bienfaits de la nature et du végétal en ville, des pistes concrètes sont proposées pour promouvoir la nécessité de créer ou préserver des espaces verts et bleus qualitatif et efficients pour la biodiversité, en s’appuyant, entre autres, sur les bonnes pratiques de villes pionnières.
It is essential to understand that there is no such thing as policy measures that could be recommended in every European cultural landscape. As a result, governance solutions must be applied in context, and heritage conservation needs to be holistic, taking into account the human factors at work in the landscape as well as biophysical aspects.
To assess those at landscape scale, it was thus found possible to test a qualitative Landscape Management Assessment frame, useful both to assess risks and opportunities and to be accountable to local actors, and built upon questions interconnecting ecological and socio-cultural issues.
At plot size, Landscape Ecological Diagnostic aims to be a valuation model that could assess biodiversity on cultural landscapes, with an “eco-anthropological” approach using the functions of landscape structures, to qualify site biodiversity load and serve sustainable land use management.
Biodiversity is a hot topic in our societies where landscape issues deals with its preservation at different scales. Ecosystem services contribute directly here to the attractiveness of cultural landscapes. SAVE Foundation, for example, strive to halt and reverse the trend of genetic erosion of agrobiodiversity, the biodiversity in agriculture. In times of climate change the living conservation of agricultural biodiversity is essential, since their broad genetic spectrum allows adaptation to changing environment. Preserve agrobiodiversity in Europe through local breeds and varieties are well adapted to their environment and need little or no nutrition supplements appears to be relevant hence their ecological footprint is generally better than in the modern high-yielding breeds and varieties.
BERAS promote a genuine ecological alternative for a good environmental status of the Baltic Sea, and establish ecological recycling agriculture (ERA farms) in intensive agricultural areas and thereby reduce input of nutrients and pesticides to the Baltic Sea.
Within HERCULES project, links between biodiversity index and landscape features were studied. A biodiversity plot index was established on questionnaires developed for each landscape structure. The resulting index was correlated with a range of flora and fauna inventories (insects, including dragonflies and moths, amphibians, and birds). The results show no significant correlation between the value of the index on different plots and flora and fauna richness, but appear to show correlation between the diversity of landscape structures and flora richness. Functional biodiversity studies demonstrate that landscape features are of ecological interest when they represent all together at least 20% of the surface and landscape complexity is recognized when they reach minimum 30% of the surface.Our new Landscape Ecological Diagnostic aims to be a valuation model that could assess biodiversity on cultural landscapes, with an “eco-anthropological” approach using the functions of landscape structures, to qualify site biodiversity load and serve sustainable land use management.
The establishment of green and blue corridors combines well with the development of pedestrian and cycling trails, and it is also an opportunity for the community to cross agglomeration maps climates and ecological coherence schemes. Thus, one of the actions from Annecy Community association Energy and Climate Territory Plan seeks to create synergies between nature and trails that aims to:
Provided sufficient fresh wells, well distributed in the territory and of good quality,
Impulse a mobility dynamic that supports pedestrian and cycling paths, together with ordinary nature,
Link mobility trails and ordinary nature,
Create a network.
Four indicators are proposed:
Trail linear mapped, planned and realized,
Number of housing and jobs within 500 ml of a path,
Attendance by the population,
Sustainability of freshness wells.
This action is part of a coherent set built on the animation based on several working groups, each covering specific themes, and resulting in the creation of an action program.
At wider scale, the project on the Nervion River banks, Spain, aims to regenerate the landscape associated with the river and promote ecological connectivity between different cities through which the river. Nervion river is located in a valley of a region with hilly and mountainous terrain, resulting in a concentration of industrial land and urban infrastructure in the flat areas. The project was implemented in several phases, with the development of alternative modes axis (pedestrian-cyclist) following the course of the river, and connected to the network stations. The aim is to regenerate the landscape associated with the river and promote ecological connectivity between the different cities where the river passes (E-CLIC Case Study # 32, Nervion River).
Elsewhere in Europe, Sperrins Gateway develops walking trail and /or multi use trail like Ulster Way, Old Dublin road access, gate and pillars enhancement, including Moyola river access work with the Moyola Angling Club, Moorland habitat restoration works for the native red grouse at Lough Fea and grey partridge at Megargy, and Heritage skills programme restoration and conservation of small built structures (stone pillars, small lime kilns, milk stands etc.).
The municipality of Colmenar Viejo has also created a dense net of walking and cycling paths all over the area that connect places of cultural and natural relevance with the village. Together with these routes there are many heritage restauration projects going on linked to the places that have been made accessible through the routes. And Grand Parc Miribel Jonage, other HERCULES case study landscape, is now a major step of Via Rhôna, a bike tour from Lake Geneva to France’s Mediterranean beaches !
ISO TR 37150 technical report reviews the community infrastructure along the lines of community functions described in table below.
Basic functions of community infrastructure appear to support the other two levels, and cultural landscapes have a major connection to water supply, transportation, and to a lesser extent management of green waste.
Water is at the origin of the history of the territory of the Grand Parc Miribel Jonage, which handles a great multiplicity of uses: it is especially a source of drinking water, and a flow area to fight against floods, which also led to the establishment of safeguards for the preservation of biodiversity, but also a raising, industrial activity with gravel extraction, that is disappearing today, and recreation place for eastern Lyon residents. Formation of the Grand Parc Miribel Jonage comes from the construction of Miribel channel to improve navigation conditions in the 1850s. After 1890 it was the turn of the Jonage canal to be built, enabling the creation at this time, of the most powerful French hydroelectric plant. From 1950, control of the Rhone river will allow to exploit the site’s assets: 3,000 hectares free of urbanization on the outskirts of the town, abundant and pure underground water, a favorable framework for economic activities and pleasant scenery. Created in 1968, the SYMALIM (joint association for development of the Grand Parc Miribel Jonage) gradually acquires land and plans development at a steady pace, allowing the creation of large bodies of water for recreation. In 1988, an emergency pumping station is created in the main lake, so that the metropolitan area has an alternative source of drinking water.
According to Cerema, « sanitation devices may constitute amenities opportunities conducive to the development of biodiversity and diversification of the urban landscape… ». These adjustments may be composed of a mosaic of environments such as ponds, swamps, ponds, wet meadows. In well-designed operations, residents can rather perceive recreational aspects and improvements of their living environment than water treatment feature. Park San Vicens, created in 2009 from a local consultation process, is thus an excellent example of pooling uses with the provision of public scenery in a storm water management dedicated lake. It contributes to actions for climate change adaptation in the city of Perpignan urban nature development plan. Although of recent design, it now has a relatively mature aspect considering tree and shrub wealth. The choice of Mediterranean species is favorable to local biodiversity, as well as the presence of the basin and a flood meadow mown once a year. The primary purpose of the site is to provide an outlet for rainwater in the city. To address the complexity of water management in the Mediterranean environment, with an oscillating water regime between period of summer drought and autumn floods, bias has been to rely more on the resilience of the site that resistance. The hydraulic device consists of a holding tank of rainwater, completed by a flooded meadow in heavy water. The device appears to work very well. But first of all, this green area of 6.5 ha is a place for intergenerational urban nature services (playground, jogging path, shaded areas, pool, picnic area, areas accessible to bikes …). Pontoons and walkways wooden path of the San Vicens Park are accessible to people with reduced mobility. In addition, decks are locally produced, using larch., and from timber production to sawmill, all gateways were provided locally. Moreover, during the creation of the park and ponds, all the materials were reused on the site, to frame views and form different moods.
Safety and security are poorly addressed issues in cultural landscapes. In urban areas, green space are recognized to play a preventive role, reducing the occurrences of assault and domestic violence (Schellenbaum Lovasi, 2008). Safety, however, proves a theme apart, for nature vehicles an imaginary in which it is still seen as a source of danger. Paul Gobster identifies six interrelated « human dimensions » associated with studies of green and blue frames: cleanliness, naturalness, aesthetics, safety, access and appropriateness of development. The dimension related to safety is expressed through two aspects for stakeholders in rivers edge: “physical safety – children at risk of falling into the river, health concerns result about direct physical contact with polluted water; and personal safety – the river as a hang-out for young gangs engaged in criminal activity, a place for drinking and drugs use, and as habitat for the homeless”. “There were considerable differences in safety perception across the corridor. In one stretch youth gangs were prevalent and limited the use of some of the sites. In other reaches, respondents were concerned about having an accident” (Gobster, 2004). The issue of public safety arises permanently in large parks, sometimes with a choice between more extensive maintenance for biodiversity, and the need to maintain visibility for the safety of all.
Ecojardin standard integrates public information criteria, including general information (emergency phone number), educational information, and temporary information, such as work in progress, to warn users of upcoming changes and their reasons. Regarding public safety, the two main considered points are the periodic verification of playgrounds, and tree health diagnosis, at least twice a year, to make adequate decision for their conservation or not, based on risks evaluation for the public.
This contradiction between safety and biodiversity in cultural landscapes is even more present in schools. Potential concerns of parents about the dangers include those associated with the introduction of wildlife that requires management. The question of the safety of schoolyard gardens is complex, but the example of forest school in the Mersey Forest Plan shows that there is a need to fight against the growing alienation of children from the natural world, and increased risk aversion in society.
Thus the issue is one of the most difficult to illustrate with health and care. Indeed, if it can be shown that cultural landscapes contribute to the well-being and public health, bottlenecks remain, related to a security vision that addresses nature as a source of danger, either in terms of health with the fear of harmful plants, animals, or water features, or in terms of safety as outdoor activities are perceived as riskier, especially for children. The demonstration that long-term benefits, including prevention of health risks, climate events, and of major risks such as floods on wider scale, are to be balanced with short-term risk and would therefore need further exploration.
Facilitating access to cultural landscape, as living and working environment, supports fair and equitable access to a high quality of life and working conditions that match the needs and expectations of interested parties (ISO 37101).
Farmers, landmanagers are providing ecosystem services including scenery, environmental services, or services for recreation activities. One of the Grand Parc Miribel Jonage mission is to facilitate access to those, in particular for people who might otherwise not have the means to access them. Thus, it reinforces its recreational facilities with for example, the renovation of three beach portions on the Atol’ sector dedicated to public enjoyment, and organizes, from spring, several events in new educational environmental center L’îloz’, around the discovery of the river Rhône and associated natural areas, on vegetable growth in the local garden, and on wild food discovery. Cultural Landscape Day organized in Grand Parc Miribel Jonage was also a nice way to address public participation with many game for children, craft workshops, story telling and musical happenings.
In Edessa, establishing green corridors contributes to a positive living and working environment. Participation of local people has been productive throughout the planning and execution of the project, to discuss uses of the three main city channels, one dedicated to art and culture, the second devoted to nature, and third dedicated to history. The master plan uses the old ways and traces (canals, green corridors) of the existing natural landscape with consolidation of the three main routes of the city, and their links with public spaces.
Channel A is dedicated to art and culture. The main objective of the design was to create a journey along the particular gateway that promotes cultural and artistic character of the city. This was achieved by a mixture of traditional installations and creation of modern art by involving local artists to the focal points on the course.
Channel B is devoted to nature. It was meant to create a new linear urban park that celebrates the richness and natural beauty of the area, recreation and education being strengthened along the walkway. This was achieved by preserving the existing natural character of the channel and by replacing existing hard materials (asphalt, cement) with local granite and materials respectful of the environment, to minimize the impact of the city of Edessa.
Channel C is dedicated to history. A bridge was fitted with a series of exhibition items and installations, which displays the history of Edessa (city in water). This path leads to the waterfalls of Edessa, which are key historical monuments. The design reflects the dynamism of water, preserving the existing natural character of the channel and designing flowing lines along the route of the canal or equipment (eg waving metal railings …).
« During consultation phase project many acceptability problems were encountered, particularly from the shops (shops moving, pedestrian areas, parking restrictions, …). Furthermore, the implementation and management of a new sustainable planning model raised doubts and questions as to whether the behaviors were willing to change and have to agree a new set of rules. However, this project demonstrates a growing awareness among civil society, private organizations and public authorities of the value of landscapes, and the ability to mobilize the active participation of stakeholders to assist in the identification and landscapes valuation » (source E-CLIC Challenge Learning Innovation Cooperation).
Support policies to peri-urban agriculture are developing, and can be anchored on major metropolitan natural areas. Grand Parc Miribel Jonage is a peri-urban park whose mission is servicing landscapes, for which the role of farmers is essential. Grand Parc Miribel Jonage had a previous vegetable farming business, which still remains in Vaulx-en-Velin and Décines, with for example the Vartan gardens, that produce organic vegetables and distribute fresh food on 2000 m² of greenhouses and 13,000 sqm of outdoor cultivation. Healthy and tasty products are supplied upon choice directly on the ground, or with a morning pick-up for immediate delivery. Unavailable on-site productions come from the region: summer fruits from Drôme, Bresse chicken, Lamb of Saint Romain, …. Grand Parc Miribel Jonage owns 400 ha of farmlands operated by 16 contracted farmers, plus 100 ha operated directly by GPMJ. Those are mainly cereals. Although farming is limited in GPMJ by legislation from the 1970s, revised in the early 2000s, breed continues, with cows for land maintenance and goats on dry grasslands. GPMJ implemented a label « Les Saveurs du Grand Parc » that aims to encourage producers, distributors, processors and consumers to focus on organic and local products. Origin of the label is historic and rooted. It started with the Woodstower festival, which hosts 17,000 people, and wants to be an eco-festival to give meaning to his action to give meaning to his action and generate stakeholders’ connections. The partnership has resulted in a search of local products, which continued with Grand Parc productions. After a first hemp cultivation for the production of oil, the second product delivered was honey with the installation of hives, and the accompaniment of draft beer with a local cereal production for Dullion Brewery. Then came a cheeses offer with the GAEC of Garotière. Lys’sentielles joined the process in 2013 with herbs. Moulin Marion, last independent miller, fits into the sector in 2014, and 2015 saw the arrival of the labeled organic meat production from the GPMJ breed for lanscapes maintenance. The HERCULES program contributed to the organization of a workshop around this approach to evaluate the balance between supply and demand, and the tools to implement to promote local supply.
The charter of the label defines a scope for the products involved, that are divided into seven families:
Grain products or derivatives ;
Fruit / vegetables or derivatives ;
Honey or derivatives ;
Flowers and herbs or derivatives;
Dairy products ;
« Welfare » products.
Geographical borders are also defined, so that the headquarters of the farm and packing places should be located within 100 Km of Grand Parc borders.
Large peri-urban parks can also supply timber industry, as is the case of GPMJ, with assistance of the National Forest Organisation in forest management plan, but also the Parilly park, which has a woodworking workshop within the service, and Lacroix-Laval Domain, using also horse for some logging operations, and for other uses, horses being much appreciated by the public.
Other good practices were collected in Rhône-Alpes rural area. Between those, Biau Panier association was created in 2005 following strong demand from Trieves residents for a bio local supply chain. The purpose of this non-profit association, is to offer a wide range of local organic products. The association currently groups nineteen producers to offer a variety of products. Vegetables, pasta, bread, flour, eggs, jams, cheeses, meats, beers, syrups, processed products, cosmetics, … are offered to individuals. The producers are grouped to facilitate access to their products throughout the country. Another advantage for vegetable producers: they gather the customer order: there is no waste. The producers set their prices as convenience but are obliged to charge the same prices on the regional markets. Producing for local delivery and organic agriculture, producers try to sow and plant the largest percentage of local seeds or very close, and breeders favour local breeds adapted to the climate and the region. As for a « drive » of a supermarket, customers choose on the website in a catalogue for the desired Wednesdays products, customers pick up their baskets in one of six collection points, preferably in carpooling. There is no obligation to buy each week, a customer can order only once or every week if he wants to. The customer profile is multiple, young, older, single, couple, working on Grenoble or locally. The location of this association is a « sustainable » Place. Trièves is composed of 28 towns of about 10 000 inhabitants, and is a center of organic agriculture: one-third of farmers are and retraining of farmers working in traditional towards greener practices is increasing. Most new installations of young farmers are organic. The disparate geography has created small plots that leave little room for « conventional » agriculture especially as in some villages like Monestier, where there was no consolidation.
In Lesvos, citizens of Gera founded a non-profit organization to preserve the forests of olive trees in the region, and contribute to social and economic development through the production of olives and agro-tourism. The approach is part of an initial finding of abandonment of olive groves, loss of environmental and cultural value, and lack of competitiveness of the production of olive oil because of geographical features of the area (land sloping, non-irrigated). However, the community has a rich ‘human capital’, based on actors with other activities, and local actors bridged together with other farmers and inhabitants of Gera in an NGO ’tis Allis Syn’ and the social enterprise « MODOUSA ». Their desire is to adopt new management systems, more decentralized and more open to change and innovation, while strongly ntégrant landscape conservation: the aim is to use the features of the landscape, developing uses to ensure the profitability of farms of olive trees (e.g. with innovative protocols to fight against the olive fly) to preserve the aesthetics of the landscape.
Living together, interdependence and mutuality entail the development of collective and collaborative lifestyles that produce mutual economic and social benefits in terms of inter and intra-generational equity and social mobility (source ISO 37101).
Landscape has an integrator and social role that can be highlighted in participatory gardens, and associated non-monetary exchanges (sharing services, plants, grains, etc.). Incredible Edible citizen participatory movement born in England, is disseminated today through the whole world, and drives young people to landscape, helping them find in public space the nature some are deprived.
Cultural landscapes may even cross borders, and Walls and Gardens seeks to promote and border history between France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Britain. These lands have indeed a density of fortified cities among the largest in Europe. Today, these architectural elements and past military areas are ideal places for relaxation, recreation, and natural sites of major ecological interest. Sustainable conservation of this specific heritages ensured with exchange of experiences between partners, inviting them to consider the notion of « border » and fortifications, border creation, impact on people, trade flows and evolving role. Indeed, the fortified cities, that marked yesterday the separation between states, are now a reconciling item to gather around the same heritage. Around « Landscape and ecological site management « and » interpretation, cultural development and tourism », the ambition is to contribute to :
Reinforcing fortified sites role in protecting natural resources and biodiversity;
Visitors awareness and involvement for the site respect and maintenance;
Promotion of historical and ecological advantages of fortified sites;
Networking experiences around new role and management of fortified sites;
Promotion of the fortified city network to emphasize their attractivity;
Contribution to international exchange of knowledge.
In Lesvos, citizens of Gera founded a non-profit organization to preserve regional olive trees forests, and contribute to social and economic development through the production of olives and agro-tourism. Facing land abandonment, loss of environmental and cultural value, and lack of competitiveness of the production of olive oil because of land sloping, non-irrigated field, the community has however rich ‘human capital’. Actors bridged together with other farmers and inhabitants in ‘Syn this allois‘ NGO and « MODOUSA » social enterprise, displaying that despite the distrust in ‘expert’ knowledge and ‘officials’, there are opportunities for collective actions that seek to conserve the landscape via productive olive field.