Biodiversity and ecosystem services

Biodiversity is a hot topic in our societies where landscape issues deals with its preservation at different scales. Ecosystem services contribute directly here to the attractiveness of cultural landscapes. SAVE Foundation, for example, strive to halt and reverse the trend of genetic erosion of agrobiodiversity, the biodiversity in agriculture. In times of climate change the living conservation of agricultural biodiversity is essential, since their broad genetic spectrum allows adaptation to changing environment. Preserve agrobiodiversity in Europe through local breeds and varieties are well adapted to their environment and need little or no nutrition supplements appears to be relevant hence their ecological footprint is generally better than in the modern high-yielding breeds and varieties.

BERAS promote a genuine ecological alternative for a good environmental status of the Baltic Sea, and establish ecological recycling  agriculture (ERA farms) in intensive agricultural areas and thereby reduce input of nutrients and pesticides to the Baltic Sea.

Within HERCULES project, links between biodiversity index and landscape features were studied. A biodiversity plot index was established on questionnaires developed for each landscape structure. The resulting index was correlated with a range of flora and fauna inventories (insects, including dragonflies and moths, amphibians, and birds). The results show no significant correlation between the value of the index on different plots and flora and fauna richness, but appear to show correlation between the diversity of landscape structures and flora richness. Functional biodiversity studies demonstrate  that landscape features are of ecological interest when they represent all together at least 20% of the surface and landscape complexity is recognized when they reach minimum 30% of the surface.Our new  Landscape Ecological Diagnostic aims to be a valuation model that could assess biodiversity on cultural landscapes, with an “eco-anthropological” approach using the functions of landscape structures, to qualify site biodiversity load and serve sustainable land use management.

Mercier_photo10
Coenagrion mercurial in Grand Parc Miribel Jonage, photo Dimitri Mercier

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Publicités

Evaluer la biodiversité d’un patrimoine paysager

Testez notre indicateur de biodiversité fonctionnelle

PlançonRLa biodiversité est un sujet phare de nos sociétés où les enjeux liés aux paysages permettent de réfléchir à sa conservation à différentes échelles. Dans le cadre du programme européen HERCULES, ce travail visait la réalisation d’un indice parcellaire de biodiversité lié aux structures paysagères semi-naturelles. L’indice de biodiversité a été instauré sur la base de questions relatives à chaque élément du paysage. Ce travail est mis à disposition pour servir de base à des réflexions sur l’évaluation de la biodiversité fonctionnelle d’un patrimoine paysager.

Biodiversity plot index

Conception écologique d’un espace public paysager

Dans le prolongement des réflexions menées dans le cadre du label EcoJardinPlante & Cité édite un Guide méthodologique de conduite de projet sur la Conception écologique d’un espace public paysager, avec la volonté de présenter les enjeux d’une conception écologique sur l’ensemble de la démarche de conduite d’un projet d’espace public paysager, depuis les phases amont de diagnostic et de programmation, aux phases de conception et de réalisation du chantier, jusqu’aux phases de suivi, de gestion et d’animation du site.

L’objectif fixé par le guide est de concilier qualité de la réponse aux nombreux enjeux écologiques existants (sols, eau, biodiversité, pollutions, déchets) et qualité du paysage créé, en termes esthétique et d’usages, et ce, afin de dépasser le champ des seuls bienfaits des espaces publics paysagers pour la biodiversité et les équilibres naturels en vue d’intégrer également le champ des bienfaits pour l’homme.

Il est issu des échanges d’un groupe de travail rassemblant des personnes aux profils variés – paysagistes, écologues, experts techniques – issues des milieux de la maîtrise d’œuvre, de la maîtrise d’ouvrage, des entreprises et de la recherche.

Ainsi, sans présager d’un type de paysage produit, la prise en compte des enjeux écologiques et les réponses particulières proposées pour chaque site en fonction de ses caractéristiques et des usages souhaités, engendre une très grande diversité de paysages.

« La présence de la nature en ville fournit de nombreux bienfaits à ses habitants comme la contribution à l’amélioration de la santé humaine, le sentiment de bien-être ainsi que la préservation de la biodiversité, véritable « assurance vie des sociétés humaines ». En cela, il existe un réel enjeu autour de la conception des espaces publics paysagers qui forment ensemble une armature végétale partagée collectivement par les habitants et participe à l’identité de la Cité. » 

(Photo Parc San Vicens, labellisé Ecojardin en 2012)

Lien vers le guide

Results on landscape perception french survey

Participant number : 258

Start date : 14th of April, 2014

End date : 17th of May, 2014

This survey was to understand the initial stakeholders perceptions on landscape towards a conclusion of the needs and expectations on current landscape management practice. It was created on Soorvey.com and shared on social networks. First questions intended to stakeholders typology, their interactions with landscape, and a first approach to the threats identified. The last, open, question, was to gather the needs, expectations and suggestions related to landscape issues.

 

Nuage de mots_verbes actions (eng)_vfinalOn this last interrogation, many of the participants suggest new types of management are needed for and better understanding of landscapes in city and town planning. To translate this we have transcribed terminology in a wordcloud where the most quoted words appear larger. In analysing several proposals within a social representation study framework (Abric, 2003),
Nuage de mots_mots sujet(eng)_vfinalparticipants seem to give more importance to respecting and preserving the existing as natural landscapes elements, features and of course historical structure heritage – Conservation. A lot of people relate to living standards, quality of life and wellbeing, particularly in the city, with a desire towards harmonisation between green space and concrete. The urban question is a major concern in our survey, due to the majority of participants from city.
Nuage de mots_mots_negatifs(eng)_vfinalAgriculture presents an important issue with requests to develop local markets particularly in suburban areas. « Awareness » and « dialogue » often appear with a desire to invest in planning towards creating a stronger identity; a cultural value to preserve and maintain. The public want to be better informed. Professionals want to be more on line with politicians and land managers. The creation of a tool for professionals and public to be better and more easily informed about current and future planning aims to respond to those wishes. All those points are detailled below through sustainable landscape management issues.

Governance

Governance appears as a critical factor for landscape management. Enforced support for developers is requested by landscape professionals with consideration to laws, regulations and existing planing in project management. The economy must be a lever to combine social and environmental economics. Recommendations should be taken at different political levels. Local stakeholders are in demand of an information system on local projects in progress.

Climate issues and natural risks

Climate change is perceived negatively and is recognized to have more frequent repercussions. Adjustment of management methods according to climate change and natural risks is expected.

Energy and green house gas

Transition to green and renewable energy is supposed to be more economically viable and more environmentally friendly. Fight against of air pollutants emissions is suggested, with compensation (tree planting,…) from « polluters ».

Biodiversity and resources

Landscape is seen as a resource for biodiversity, essential to insure ecosystem functions and natural regulation. People sigh after lost mosaïc landscapes, but agree landscape

evolve and are dynamics. Habitat connection is thought to be essential to ecological functions and to its preservation is plebiscited, whether remarkable or ordinary. Wetland developement and preservation are particularly mentioned for maintenance of biodiversity

Strong second issue is related to food resource with intensive agriculture perceived as an overuse of the environment. People mainly living in the city want short food circuits (AMAP) and agriculture around cities, togather with shared gardens.

Pollution

Pollution is mentioned through noise, aesthetic of billboard and chemicals for plant protection. Pesticide free practices are expected to « get out of the spiral“.

Urbanization and nature in the city

Urbanization is seen as a major threats with a lack of harmonization between natural areas and buildings. « Destruction, eradication, transformations, lack of consistency“ are pejorative words related to urbanization. Urban density is one of the solution proposed.

Transport and infrastructures

People are waiting for new modes of transportation in and around cities with the use of soft mobility. Large transport infrastructure (airport, TGV) and negatively perceived as a source of damage to natural environments.

Social and heritage issues

Attachment to natural, cultural heritage and local territory is strong. Identity is linked to the notion of territory. Communication, information, awareness about landscape, biodiversity, are much needed as of major interest in our society. Landscape in itself is a place of leisure, of rich history and traditional knowledge and should be considered of general interest.

Human well-being

Landscape is seen as a source of well-being and as a welcoming, pleasant, aesthetic and quality place. It appeals to sensitivity and evokes a source of calm, beneficial leisure (walk) and relaxation.

word importance

 The results are available in the file below :

Landscape_perception_survey_results